European adolescents' use of mass media differs significantly by gender, family life, social economic status, and education, according to recent studies. For example, boys are more likely than girls to have a television in their own room, and content preferences are dramatically different. Recent studies also suggest that family dynamics may change as new media technologies are introduced. In some studies, the mother's educational status has been more directly related to patterns of electronic media use than the father's, and adolescents' commitment to school has been shown to predict music preferences. To make meaningful generalizations about adolescents and the media in the future, these and other mediating factors, including ethnicity and cognitive development, must be considered.