This 2-year longitudinal study assessed prevalence of Axis I anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms and their relationship to manifestations of HIV illness in a sample of nonintravenous drug users. The sample included 173 homosexual men with HIV or AIDS (HIV+/AIDS) and 84 homosexual men negative for HIV or AIDS (HIV-). Data were compared with national prevalence rates to provide a framework for interpretation. No significant differences were observed. However, compared with the general population, both HIV+/AIDS and HIV- men reported more anxiety symptoms and stress. For the HIV+/AIDS group there was a positive relationship between anxiety and HIV symptoms, fatigue, and physical limitations. No changes in rates or levels of anxiety were observed in those whose immunologic markers improved or worsened over the 2 years.