The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Jun;150(2):220-5. doi: 10.1007/s002130000406.


Rationale: Vitamin and mineral supplements may be associated with improved psychological status.

Objective: The present study tested the effects of a multivitamin and mineral supplement (Berocca) on psychological well-being.

Methods: In a double-blind randomised-control trial, 80 healthy male volunteers were assigned to either Berocca or placebo. Questionnaires measuring psychological state were completed and a blood sample taken to determine plasma zinc concentration on day 1 (pre-treatment) and again on day 28 (post-treatment), following 28 days of treatments, which were administered at a dosage of one tablet daily. At the end of the study, the acceptability of the treatment and participants' awareness of treatment condition were assessed, as was habitual dietary behaviour.

Results: Relative to placebo, treatment with Berocca was associated with consistent and statistically significant reductions in anxiety and perceived stress. Participants in the Berocca group also tended to rate themselves as less tired and better able to concentrate following treatment. In addition, participants registered more somatic symptoms following placebo than following Berocca. These effects cannot be attributed to differences in the acceptability of the two treatments or to participants guessing what treatment they received.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that Berocca significantly reduces anxiety and perceived stress.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anxiety / drug therapy*
  • Calcium / therapeutic use*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Combinations
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Stress, Psychological / drug therapy
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use*
  • Zinc / blood
  • Zinc / therapeutic use*


  • Drug Combinations
  • Vitamins
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc
  • Calcium