Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is composed of myofibroblasts, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Cytokines are possibly involved in its pathogenesis. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) encodes cell cycle regulatory and signaling proteins. A combination of nested PCR with several negative controls and Southern blot methods showed the presence of HHV-8 DNA in seven cases of IMT. Additionally, strong expression was demonstrated by in situ hybridization in many tumoral nuclei. Most of the myofibroblasts in all of the cases were immunoreactive for human IL-6 and cyclin D1. These cytokines probably have a paracrine action and may sustain myofibroblastic growth. HHV-8 could play an essential role in triggering IMT development by a local reactivation of viral lytic replication. The relationship between HHV-8 and immunosuppression status as the only associated cause for tumorigenesis should be revised.