The mechanisms responsible for the low factor VIII (fVIII) activity in the plasma of patients with mild/moderate hemophilia A are poorly understood. In such patients, we have identified a series of fVIII mutations (Ile2098Ser, Ser2119Tyr, Asn2129Ser, Arg2150His, and Pro2153Gln) clustered in the C1 domain and associated with reduced binding of fVIII to von Willebrand factor (vWf). For each patient plasma, the specific activity of mutated fVIII was close to that of normal fVIII. Scatchard analysis showed that the affinity for vWf of recombinant Ile2098Ser, Ser2119Tyr, and Arg2150His fVIII mutants was reduced 8-fold, 80-fold, and 3-fold, respectively, when compared with normal fVIII. Given the importance of vWf for the stability of fVIII in plasma, these findings suggested that the reduction of fVIII binding to vWf resulting from the above-mentioned mutations could contribute to patients' low fVIII plasma levels. We, therefore, analyzed the effect of vWf on fVIII production by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with expression vectors for recombinant B domain-deleted normal, Ile2098Ser, Ser2119Tyr, and Arg2150His fVIII. These 3 mutations impaired the vWf-dependent accumulation of functional fVIII in culture medium. Analysis of fVIII production by transiently transfected CHO cells indicated that, in addition to the impaired stabilization by vWf, the secretion of functional Ile2098Ser and Arg2150His fVIII was reduced about 2-fold and 6-fold, respectively, by comparison to Ser2119Tyr and normal fVIII. These findings indicate that C1-domain mutations resulting in reduced fVIII binding to vWf are an important cause of mild/moderate hemophilia A.