Raman spectroscopy (RS) has potential for disease classification within the gastrointestinal tract (GI). A near-infrared (NIR) fiber-optic RS system has been developed previously. This study reports the first in vivo Raman spectra of human gastrointestinal tissues measured during routine clinical endoscopy. This was achieved by using this system with a fiber-optic probe that was passed through the endoscope instrument channel and placed in contact with the tissue surface. Spectra could be obtained with good signal-to-noise ratio in 5 s. The effects on the spectra of varying the pressure of the probe tip on the tissue and of the probe-tissue angle were determined and shown to be insignificant. The limited set of spectra from normal and diseased tissues revealed only subtle differences. Therefore, powerful spectral-sorting algorithms, successfully implemented in prior ex vivo studies, are required to realize the full diagnostic potential of RS for tissue classification in the GI.