The non-insulin-dependent DIABetes, HYpertension, microalbuminuria or proteinuria, CARdiovascular events, and Ramipril (DIABHYCAR) study is a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter international trial of the ACE inhibitor ramipril (1.25 mg/day) in patients with type II diabetes and micro- or macroalbuminuria. The main outcome of the study is the time to first occurrence of either death from a cardiovascular origin, including sudden death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or congestive heart failure, or requirement of hemodialysis or renal transplantation. The study was launched in France in early 1995 with the participation of general practitioners only, but had to be extended to 15 other countries in 1997 due to difficulties in recruitment. Since 2.5 years after the beginning of the trial the observed event rate was much less than anticipated, it was decided to increase recruitment and follow-up duration and to include congestive heart failure in the definition of the main outcome to keep the study power at a satisfactory level. Recruitment ended on April 1, 1998 with 4937 randomized patients. Following the early discontinuation for efficacy of another study of ramipril in high cardiovascular risk patients, the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation study (HOPE), the second interim analysis of DIABHYCAR was performed early (when 406 instead of 500 patients presented a main outcome) and the Data Safety and Monitoring Board recommended that the study continue. Follow-up is planned to end on March 31, 2001.