Several issues remain to be resolved before the efficacy of various approaches to elicit anti-tumor immunity in patients can be evaluated. First, in vitro assays able to detect responses by T cells primed in vivo are needed. Second, a source of tumor antigen to stimulate patients' lymphocytes in vitro is required. The ELISPOT assay is attractive, because it can be performed with a small numbers of cells and requires only short-term culture in vitro. A source of tumor antigen is more problematic, since for most tumors, tumor-associated antigens (TAA) have not been identified and/or cloned. In this report we demonstrate that autologous antigen-presenting cells (APC) pulsed with total tumor peptides from autologous tumor tissue can stimulate IFNgamma release by patients' lymphocytes in the ELISPOT assay. Thus, this approach should be considered for monitoring immune responses in clinical immunotherapy trials.