Antibody humanization: a case of the 'Emperor's new clothes'?

Immunol Today. 2000 Aug;21(8):397-402. doi: 10.1016/s0167-5699(00)01680-7.


The antiglobulin response is perceived as a major problem in the clinical development of therapeutic antibodies. Successive technical developments such as chimeric, humanized and, now, fully human antibodies claim to offer improved solutions to this problem. Although there is clear evidence that chimeric antibodies are less immunogenic than murine monoclonal antibodies, little evidence exists to support claims for further improvements as a result of more elaborate humanization protocols.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / biosynthesis*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use
  • Drug Design
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Immunoglobulin Constant Regions / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin Constant Regions / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin Variable Region / biosynthesis
  • Immunoglobulin Variable Region / immunology
  • Mice
  • Protein Engineering / methods
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / immunology
  • Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Immunoglobulin Constant Regions
  • Immunoglobulin Variable Region
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Recombinant Proteins