The development of a vaccine to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a highly desirable goal. However, there may be a number of psychosocial barriers to HIV vaccine acceptance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of health beliefs and health lifestyles to acceptability of hypothetical HIV immunization. The subjects were 549 college students who completed self-administered questionnaires that addressed health beliefs, health behaviours, and acceptability of hypothetical HIV vaccines. Results showed that all 6 variables of health beliefs, based in part on the Health Belief Model, independently predicted HIV vaccine acceptability. For the overall sample, 5 health behaviours were significantly correlated with HIV vaccination: diet, smoking, drug use, alcohol use, and prior sexual experience. The results suggest that universal HIV acceptance cannot be assumed, and that certain health beliefs and behaviours are likely to influence decisions regarding HIV immunization.