Leptin is a protein hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes that affects food intake and energy expenditure. Its serum levels are significantly higher in patients with chronic renal failure compared to healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to compare serum leptin levels in hemodialyzed patients with type II diabetes mellitus (n=26) with body content-matched hemodialyzed patients without diabetes (n=26) and to explore the relationship between parameters of the long term diabetes metabolic control and serum leptin levels. Serum leptin levels in diabetic patients did not significantly differ from those of non-diabetic patients (25.3+/-8.8 vs 25.7+/-8.7 ng/ml). Serum leptin levels in diabetic patients positively correlated with body fat content, body mass index and predialysis serum insulin levels. No significant relationship were observed between serum leptin levels and blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycated protein, serum urea, creatinine, leukocyte count and total hemoglobin respectively. The multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that body fat content together with body mass index accounted for 77.8% of variations in predialysis serum leptin levels, while insulin levels and the parameters of diabetes metabolic control had only slight prediction value for leptin concentrations. We conclude that serum leptin levels in hemodialysed patients with type III diabetes mellitus do not significantly differ from those of hemodialysed non-diabetic patients. The body fat content and body mass index are the strongest predictors of serum leptin levels, while parameters of long term diabetes metabolic control play probably only minor direct role in its regulation.