Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome. Optimal therapy for this disease is still debated. We report our experience using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), an immunosuppressive agent widely used in transplant recipients, to treat 16 nephrotic patients with MN. All patients had biopsy-documented MN; secondary forms were ruled out. Fifteen patients had steroid-resistant disease; cytotoxic agents had failed in 6 patients and cyclosporine therapy had failed in 5 patients. Patients were treated with MMF (dose range, 500 to 2,000 mg) for a mean of 8 months. Six patients experienced a halving of proteinuria, which occurred after a mean duration of 6 months of therapy. Partial remissions occurred in 2 patients. There were no significant changes in mean values for serum creatinine, serum albumin, or proteinuria. Mean cholesterol levels were significantly less. Side effects of MMF were infrequent and generally mild. In summary, MMF appears to reduce proteinuria in some patients with idiopathic MN previously resistant to steroids, cytotoxic agents, or cyclosporine. Further trials with this agent are warranted.