We investigated the cellular mechanism(s) of insulin resistance associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) using skeletal muscles isolated from non-obese, insulin resistant type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a well known genetic rat model for type II diabetic humans. Relative to non-diabetic control rats (WKY), insulin-stimulated insulin receptor (IR) autophosphorylation and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation were significantly inhibited in GK skeletal muscles. This may be due to increased dephosphorylation by a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase). Therefore, we measured skeletal muscle total PTPase and PTPase 1B activities in the skeletal muscles isolated from control rats (WKY) and diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. PTPase activity was measured using a synthetic phosphopeptide, TRDIY(P)ETDY(P)Y(P)RK, as the substrate. Basal PTPase activity was 2-fold higher (P < 0.001) in skeletal muscle of GK rats when compared to WKY. Insulin infusion inhibited skeletal muscle PTPase activity in both control (26.20% of basal, P < 0.001) and GK (25.35% of basal, P < 0.001) rats. However, PTPase activity in skeletal muscle of insulin-stimulated GK rats was 200% higher than hormone-treated WKY controls (P < 0.001). Immunoprecipitation of PTPase 1B from skeletal muscle lysates and analysis of the enzyme activity in immunoprecipitates indicated that both basal and insulin-stimulated PTPase 1B activities were significantly higher (twofold, P < 0.001) in skeletal muscle of diabetic GK rats when compared to WKY controls. The increase in PTPase 1B activity in diabetic GK rats was associated with an increased expression of the PTPase 1B protein. We concluded that insulin resistance of GK rats is accompanied atleast by an abnormal regulation of PTPase 1B. Elevated PTPase 1B activity through enhanced tyrosine dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and its substrates, may lead to impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in GK rats.
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.