Oxidative stress and the damage that results from it have been implicated in a wide number of disease processes including atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorders, neuronal degeneration, and cancer. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are ubiquitous and occur naturally in all aerobic species, coming from both exogenous and endogenous sources. ROS are quite reactive and readily damage biological molecules, including DNA. While the damaging effects of ROS on DNA have been intensively studied, the effects of oxidative damage on cell cycle checkpoint function have not. Here will we review several biologically important ROS and their sources, the cell cycle, checkpoints, and current knowledge about the effects of ROS on initiating checkpoint responses.