A phase I trial of andrographolide in HIV positive patients and normal volunteers

Phytother Res. 2000 Aug;14(5):333-8. doi: 10.1002/1099-1573(200008)14:5<333::aid-ptr584>3.0.co;2-d.


A phase I dose-escalating clinical trial of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata was conducted in 13 HIV positive patients and five HIV uninfected, healthy volunteers. The objectives were primarily to assess safety and tolerability and secondarily to assess effects on plasma virion HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4(+) lymphocyte levels. No subjects used antiretroviral medications during the trial. Those with liver or renal abnormalities were excluded. The planned regimen was 5 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, escalating to 10 mg/kg bodyweight for 3 weeks, and to 20 mg/kg bodyweight for a final 3 weeks. The trial was interrupted at 6 weeks due to adverse events including an anaphylactic reaction in one patient. All adverse events had resolved by the end of observation. A significant rise in the mean CD4(+) lymphocyte level of HIV subjects occurred after administration of 10 mg/kg andrographolide (from a baseline of 405 cells/mm(3) to 501 cells/mm(3); p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant changes in mean plasma HIV-1 RNA levels throughout the trial. Andrographolide may inhibit HIV-induced cell cycle dysregulation, leading to a rise in CD4(+) lymphocyte levels in HIV-1 infected individuals.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antiviral Agents / adverse effects
  • Antiviral Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects*
  • Diterpenes / administration & dosage
  • Diterpenes / adverse effects
  • Diterpenes / pharmacology*
  • Diterpenes / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Plants, Medicinal / chemistry*
  • RNA, Viral / blood
  • RNA, Viral / drug effects
  • Reference Values
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antiviral Agents
  • Diterpenes
  • RNA, Viral
  • andrographolide