Trends in bronchial hyperresponsiveness, respiratory symptoms and lung function among adults: West and East Germany. INGA Study Group. Indoor Factors and Genetics in Asthma

Respir Med. 2000 Jul;94(7):668-77. doi: 10.1053/rmed.2000.0795.


Previous studies have shown higher prevalences of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), respiratory symptoms and atopic sensitization among adults in Western Germany than in Eastern Germany. One of the aims of the joint project INGA (INdoor Factors and Genetics in Asthma) is to assess incidence, prevalence and trends for asthma, BHR and atopic diseases over a time period of 11 years (1990-2001) in the former West (Hamburg) and East Germany (Erfurt), with special reference to indoor exposure. INGA was designed as a case-control study following a cross-sectional study performed from 1990 to 1992 within the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). The database consisted of 1159 subjects in Hamburg and 731 subjects in Erfurt from the ECRHS (age 20-44). In 1995-1996, 107 cases (diagnosed asthma, positive specific serum IgE, positive skin prick or PD20FEV1< or =2.0 mg methacholine at ECRHS) and 106 controls (none of the previous findings) participated in Hamburg (115 cases and 109 controls in Erfurt). The methodology was identical to the ECRHS and dose-response slopes (DRS) of the methacholine challenge were calculated as an index of responsiveness. In the control group, median values of DRS were 0.028% mg(-1) (1990-1992) and 0.044 (1995-1996) (P<0.01) in Erfurt. Corresponding values for Hamburg were 0.028 and 0.022 (NS). Corresponding values within the case groups were 0.041 and 0.049 (NS) for Erfurt, and 0.069 and 0.052 (P<0.05) for Hamburg. Thus, 4 years after the first survey, we found an increased BHR in the Erfurt control group while the bronchial responsiveness remained unchanged for the Hamburg group. These trends in BHR, which indicate the expected converging tendency between East and West Germany, have to be confirmed within the next INGA-survey in 2000-2001.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asthma / epidemiology*
  • Asthma / physiopathology
  • Bronchial Hyperreactivity / epidemiology*
  • Bronchial Hyperreactivity / physiopathology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Forced Expiratory Volume / physiology
  • Germany, East / epidemiology
  • Germany, West / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity, Immediate / epidemiology
  • Hypersensitivity, Immediate / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vital Capacity / physiology