Allosteric regulation of rat A(2A) adenosine receptors by amiloride, amiloride analogues, and sodium ions was studied by investigating their ability to influence the dissociation of [(3)H]4-2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a][1,3, 5]triazin-5-yl-amino]ethylphenol ([(3)H]ZM241385) from receptors in rat striatal membranes. Both amiloride and its analogues accelerated the dissociation, the analogues being more potent than amiloride itself. In contrast, sodium ions decreased the rate of [(3)H]ZM241385 dissociation in a concentration-dependent manner, and this rate was not influenced by guanosine triphosphate, N-ethylmaleimide, suramin, or the selective A(2A) adenosine receptor antagonist, 5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-7(2-phenylethyl)pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2, 4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH58261). The effect of competition between the amiloride analogue 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA) and sodium ions on [(3)H]ZM241385 dissociation was also explored. The addition of sodium ions resulted in a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the HMA response curve. The slopes of the HMA concentration-response curves in the presence and absence of sodium ions were not significantly different, which suggests that sodium ions and amiloride analogues act at a common allosteric site on the A(2A) adenosine receptor. There was a lack of correlation between the displacement of ligand binding and the allosteric potencies of the amiloride analogues.