To study the correlation between blood-retinal barrier (BRB) permeability and development of form deprivation (FD) myopia, FD was induced in tree shrews. The refractive error and the axial dimensions of the optical elements were measured. Ocular fluorescence was measured before and after fluorescein-Na injection. The inward permeability (P(in)) of the BRB was measured before and 15, 30, and 45 days after FD was induced. FD eyes became significantly myopic 15 days after FD was induced (P<0.01), and myopia progressed 45 days after FD was induced compared with untreated controls. Neither anterior chamber length nor lens thickness changed significantly. The vitreous chamber in FD eyes, however, was significantly elongated from 15 days after FD was induced (P<0.01) compared with controls. The P(in) ratio (P(in) [FD eye]/P(in) [untreated control]), increased significantly 45 days after FD was induced (P<0.05). In FD myopia in tree shrews, the BRB permeability increases abnormally. Impaired BRB function might be a secondary effect of myopia development rather than the cause of myopia.