Immunogenicity and efficacy of Russian live attenuated and US inactivated influenza vaccines used alone and in combination in nursing home residents

Vaccine. 2000 Sep 15;19(2-3):308-18. doi: 10.1016/s0264-410x(00)00153-5.


The immunogenicity and efficacy of Russian live attenuated and US inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines administered alone or in three different combinations were evaluated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study of 614 elderly or chronically ill nursing home residents in St. Petersburg, Russia during the 1996-97 influenza season. Postvaccination serum antibody responses were more frequent among individuals administered the combination vaccines than among those vaccinated with live or inactivated vaccine alone. Only individuals who received live vaccine, alone or in combination with inactivated vaccine, achieved significant postvaccination increases in virus-specific nasal IgA. Efficacy in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in vaccinated versus nonvaccinated individuals was 67% (95%CI, 36-81%) for recipients of a combination of the vaccines compared with 51% (95%CI, -17-79%) for recipients of live vaccine alone and 50% (95%CI, -26-80%) for recipients of inactivated vaccine alone. These results suggest that administration of a combination of influenza vaccines may provide a strategy for improved influenza vaccination of elderly people.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A, Secretory / analysis
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nursing Homes
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology
  • Vaccines, Combined / immunology


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A, Secretory
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, Combined