Acute RSV infection in infancy may produce some asthma-like symptoms and may be followed by a recurrent wheeze later in childhood. It has been proposed that RSV infection stimulates type-2 cytokine responses, resembling those found in atopy and asthma. Peripheral blood cells were obtained from RSV-infected infants (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 10). After in vitro restimulation of the cells, intracellular IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were measured by flow cytometry. The cells from RSV-infected infants produced more IL-4 and less IFN-gamma than those from healthy controls. IL-4 production was more frequent in CD8 than in CD4 cells, and the bias toward IL-4 production was greatest in infants with mild infections, whereas IFN-gamma production increased with disease severity. Our conclusions are that RSV infection is associated with IL-4 production in peripheral T cells, and that peripheral blood in infants with severe disease may be depleted of cytokine-producing cells.