HLA class I and II frequencies and haplotype frequencies were determined in 80 German immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient individuals and 157 healthy controls with normal IgA levels using serological and DNA typing methods. For several alleles, significant associations were found, which could be explained mainly in the context of a positive association with three different extended haplotypes (HLA-B*08:DRB1*0301: DQB1*0201, HLA-B*14:DRB1*0102:DQB1*0501 and HLA-B*44:DRB1*0701:DQB1*0202) and a negative association with a fourth haplotype (HLA-B*07:DRB1*1501:DQB1*0602). Furthermore, for the first time this study reports a positive association of IgA deficiency with DPB1 alleles. Homozygosity rate for the gene loci DRB1 and DQB1 was increased in IgA deficiency. Further analysis suggested a different pattern of HLA associations depending on the degree of IgA deficiency and the gender of the IgA-deficient individuals.