Implantable pulse generators (pacemakers) and electrodes: safety in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner environment

J Magn Reson Imaging. 2000 Jul;12(1):201-4. doi: 10.1002/1522-2586(200007)12:1<201::aid-jmri23>;2-g.


Static magnetic fields, time-varying electric and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic interference within the magnetic resonance imaging scanner environment can cause the implantable pulse generator (pacemaker) to malfunction and render the electrodes hazardous to the patient. This article provides a review of the literature and of international regulatory guidance concerning safety considerations when these implantable devices are exposed to magnetic resonance imaging.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Electrodes / adverse effects*
  • Electromagnetic Fields / adverse effects*
  • Equipment Safety
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / adverse effects*
  • Pacemaker, Artificial / adverse effects*
  • Prostheses and Implants / adverse effects
  • Risk Assessment