Ryk-deficient mice exhibit craniofacial defects associated with perturbed Eph receptor crosstalk

Nat Genet. 2000 Aug;25(4):414-8. doi: 10.1038/78099.


Secondary palate formation is a complex process that is frequently disturbed in mammals, resulting in the birth defect cleft palate. Gene targeting has identified components of cytokine/growth factor signalling systems such as Tgf-alpha/Egfr, Eph receptors B2 and B3 (Ephb2 and Ephb3, respectively), Tgf-beta2, Tgf-beta3 and activin-betaA (ref. 3) as regulators of secondary palate development. Here we demonstrate that the mouse orphan receptor 'related to tyrosine kinases' (Ryk) is essential for normal development and morphogenesis of craniofacial structures including the secondary palate. Ryk belongs to a subclass of catalytically inactive, but otherwise distantly related, receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Mice homozygous for a null allele of Ryk have a distinctive craniofacial appearance, shortened limbs and postnatal mortality due to feeding and respiratory complications associated with a complete cleft of the secondary palate. Consistent with cleft palate phenocopy in Ephb2/Ephb3-deficient mice and the role of a Drosophila melanogaster Ryk orthologue, Derailed, in the transduction of repulsive axon pathfinding cues, our biochemical data implicate Ryk in signalling mediated by Eph receptors and the cell-junction-associated Af-6 (also known as Afadin). Our findings highlight the importance of signal crosstalk between members of different RTK subfamilies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / embryology
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / genetics*
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development / genetics
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Receptor Cross-Talk / physiology*
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / deficiency
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Receptor, EphB2
  • Signal Transduction


  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Receptor, EphB2
  • Ryk protein, mouse