We investigated the in vitro susceptibilities of clinical and laboratory-selected Aspergillus spp. to posaconazole, and compared the results with those obtained for amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole. Conidial suspensions from clinical isolates (284 Aspergillus fumigatus, 66 Aspergillus niger, 31 Aspergillus flavus and 43 Aspergillus spp.) and laboratory-selected resistant A. fumigatus isolates (15 resistant to amphotericin B, 25 to itraconazole and 12 to voriconazole) were prepared and their susceptibilities to various antifungal agents determined using a previously described broth macrodilution technique. The geometric mean MICs (mg/L) of posaconazole for A. fumigatus (0.17 +/- 0.11) and non-A. fumigatus aspergilli (0.16 +/- 0.28) were significantly lower (P 0.05) than those for amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole. Amphotericin B-resistant A. fumigatus isolates were as susceptible to posaconazole as the parental strain. Itraconazole- and voriconazole-resistant isolates showed low-level (two- to three-fold increase in MICs) cross-resistance to posaconazole. The minimum fungicidal concentrations (mg/L) of posaconazole for A. fumigatus (n = 58) and non-A. fumigatus aspergilli (n = 40) were 4. 45 +/- 2.70 (range 0.25-8) and 4.14 +/- 3.03 (range 0.5-8), respectively. Time-kill studies showed that the fungicidal activity of posaconazole against A. fumigatus is time- and concentration-dependent (for example, posaconazole 4 mg/L killed >99% of A. fumigatus conidia within 24 h). These results suggest that overall, posaconazole has better activity and a smaller range of MICs for Aspergillus spp., including those with reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B, itraconazole and voriconazole.