Cancer patients often present altered serum lipid profile including changes of HDL cholesterol level. The aim of our work was to evaluate serum level of HDL cholesterol in patients with squamous cell and small cell lung cancer and its dependence on histological type and clinical stage of lung cancer. Fasting serum level of HDL cholesterol was analysed in 135 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and compared to a control group of healthy men. All lung cancer patients, as well as subgroups of squamous cell and small cell lung cancer had statistically significantly lower HDL cholesterol concentration than controls. There were no statistically significant differences of HDL cholesterol level between the histological types or between clinical stages of each histological type of lung cancer.