Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with motor neuron disease means amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with dementia. In the cerebrum of this condition, the medial cortex of the rostral temporal lobe is constantly and most remarkably involved. Another constant and quite characteristic lesion is neuronal loss localized to the CA1-subiculum transitional area at the level of the pes hippocampi. The rostral portion of the parahippocampal gyrus, and the amygdaloid nucleus are also involved. Ubiquitinated intracytoplasmic inclusions are seen in the dentate granule cells and parahippocampal gyrus neurons. Some cases of ALS without dementia show the identical temporal lobe degeneration as well as the cortical ubiquitinated inclusions, thus raising the possibility of overlooked dementia or premature death of the patients. Similarly, recently proposed motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia may be a forme fruste of ALS with dementia.