Transcriptional inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity by a c-fos/estrogen receptor fusion protein is mediated by the proximal AP-1 site of the MMP-9 promoter and correlates with reduced tumor cell invasion

Neoplasia. 1999 Oct;1(4):368-72. doi: 10.1038/sj.neo.7900041.


Tumor cell invasion of basement membranes is one of the hallmarks of malignant transformation. Tumor cells secrete proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix molecules. Increased expression of MMP-9 has been associated with acquisition of invasive phenotype in many tumors. However, multiple mechanisms for regulation of MMP-9 gene expression by tumor cell lines have been proposed. A number of transcription factor binding sites have been characterized in the upstream regulatory region of the MMP-9 gene, including those for AP-1. To determine how a specific AP-1 family member, c-fos, regulates MMP-9 promoter activity through these sites, we used an expression vector containing the c-fos coding region fused to the estrogen receptor (ER) ligand binding domain. This construct is activated upon binding estradiol. Stable expression of this construct in ER negative squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lines produced an estradiol dependent decrease in the number of cells that migrated through a reconstituted basement membrane. This decreased invasiveness was accompanied by estradiol dependent downregulation of MMP-9 activity as determined by gelatin zymography. Estradiol also produced transcriptional downregulation of an MMP-9 promoter construct in cells transiently transfected with the c-fosER expression vector. This downregulation was mediated by the AP-1 site at -79 bp in the MMP-9 promoter. We concluded that the proximal AP-1 site mediated the transcriptional downregulation of the MMP-9 promoter by a conditionally activated c-fos fusion protein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Binding Sites
  • Blotting, Western
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism
  • Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase / metabolism
  • Down-Regulation
  • Estradiol / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism*
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic*
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
  • Receptors, Estrogen
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • Estradiol
  • Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9