The integrin family (Hynes, R.O., 1992. Integrins: versatility, modulation, and signaling in cell adhesion. Cell 69, 11-25) is composed of at least 24 heterodimers formed from eight beta subunits and 18 alpha subunits. Thus far, mice expressing null mutations of seven of the eight beta subunits and 13 of the 18 known alpha subunits have been generated, With only a few exceptions, the phenotypes of each of the knockout lines are quite distinct. Studies utilizing integrin knockout mice and cells derived from these mice have provided considerable and sometimes surprising insights into unique functions of individual members of this family.