Three strains of a previously undescribed Actinomyces-like bacterium were isolated from human clinical sources (urine, urethra and vaginal secretion). Biochemical testing and PAGE analysis of whole-cell proteins indicated that the strains were phenotypically homogeneous and distinct from previously described Actinomyces and Arcanobacterium species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies showed the bacterium to be a hitherto unknown subline within a group of Actinomyces species which includes Actinomyces bovis, the type species of the genus. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence it is proposed that the unknown bacterium from humans be classified as Actinomyces urogenitalis sp. nov. The type strain of Actinomyces urogenitalis is CCUG 38702T (= CIP 106421T).