CD19-deficient mice exhibit poor responsiveness to oral immunization despite evidence of unaltered total IgA levels, germinal centers and IgA-isotype switching in Peyer's patches

Eur J Immunol. 2000 Jul;30(7):1861-71. doi: 10.1002/1521-4141(200007)30:7<1861::AID-IMMU1861>3.0.CO;2-A.


CD19 exhibits a critical role as a response regulator in B cells, influencing activation, differentiation and survival. Accordingly, CD19-deficient mice largely lack B-1 cells, and their conventional B-2 cells are poor responders to thymus-dependent antigen. Since both B-1 and B-2 cells may contribute to the total intestinal IgA production, we investigated whether lack of CD19 negatively affected mucosal immunity. We found that CD19(-/-) mice have near normal total IgA levels in serum and gut mucosa and, contrary to systemic lymphoid tissues, Peyer's patches (PP) had germinal centers to which also IgA+ B cells localized. However, the mice demonstrated severely impaired responses to oral immunization with keyhole limpet hemocyanin plus cholera toxin adjuvant. Mucosal responses to oral immunization were significantly more impaired than systemic responses. Despite normal specific IL-4 production, a selective defect in Th2-regulated B cell isotypes was observed, with poor or no mucosal IgA, low serum IgG1 and no IgE, but intact serum IgA and IgG2a production. Ex vivo experiments revealed strongly inhibited CD40-stimulated proliferation and IgA differentiation in CD19-deficient PP B cells. Taken together, an impaired CD40 responsiveness selectively affected Th2, but not Th1, coordinated B cell responses. The CD19(-/-) mice provide compelling evidence for the differential regulation of serum and mucosal IgA immunity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / immunology
  • Antigens, CD19 / genetics
  • Antigens, CD19 / immunology*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Cholera Toxin / immunology*
  • Germinal Center / immunology*
  • Hemocyanins / immunology*
  • Immunization / methods
  • Immunoglobulin A / biosynthesis*
  • Immunoglobulin Class Switching / immunology*
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / classification
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes / immunology*
  • Immunoglobulin M / blood
  • Immunoglobulin M / classification
  • Injections, Intraperitoneal
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Peyer's Patches / immunology*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Antigens, CD19
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Cholera Toxin
  • Hemocyanins
  • keyhole-limpet hemocyanin