Although essential to host defense, neutrophils are also involved in numerous inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. Dietary supplementation with relatively large amounts of fish oil [containing >2.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus 1.4 g docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day] can attenuate neutrophil functions such as chemotaxis and superoxide radical production. In this study, the effects of more moderate supplementation with fish oil on neutrophil lipid composition and function were investigated. The rationale for using lower supplementary doses of fish oil was to avoid adverse gastrointestinal problems, which have been observed at high supplementary concentrations of fish oil. Healthy male volunteers aged <40 yr were randomly assigned to consume one of six dietary supplements daily for 12 wk (n = 8 per treatment group). The dietary supplements included four different concentrations of fish oil (the most concentrated fish oil provided 0.58 g EPA plus 1.67 g DHA per day), linseed oil, and a placebo oil. The percentages of EPA and DHA increased (both P < 0.05) in neutrophil phospholipids in a dose-dependent manner after 4 wk of supplementation with the three most concentrated fish oil supplements. No further increases in EPA or DHA levels were observed after 4 wk. The percentage of arachidonic acid in neutrophil phospholipids decreased (P < 0.05) after 12 wk supplementation with the linseed oil supplement or the two most concentrated fish oil supplements. There were no significant changes in N-formyl-met-leu-phe-induced chemotaxis and superoxide radical production following the dietary supplementations. In conclusion, low-to-moderate amounts of dietary fish oil can be used to manipulate neutrophil fatty acid composition. However, this may not be accompanied by modulation of neutrophil functions such as chemotaxis and superoxide radical production.