We have isolated the "complete" repertoire of genes encoding the odorant receptors in Drosophila and employ these genes to provide a molecular description of the organization of the peripheral olfactory system. The repertoire of Drosophila odorant receptors is encoded by 57 genes. Individual sensory neurons are likely to express only a single receptor gene. Neurons expressing a given gene project axons to one or two spatially invariant glomeruli in the antennal lobe. The insect brain therefore retains a two-dimensional map of receptor activation such that the quality of an odor may be encoded by different spatial patterns of activity in the antennal lobe.