It is well-recognized that standard caloric restrictions (1500 kcal/day) are usually poorly effective in achieving weight losses in overweight type 2 diabetic patients. For that reason very-low-calorie-diets (VLCDs) were developed as a mean for initiating or accelerating weight reduction. Short-term studies indicate that VLCDs result generally in weight losses that are three times greater than those obtained with standard low-calorie-diets. Fasting blood glucose values are improving in parallel to weight losses and in many patients the improvement in glycemic control is better than that expected from the magnitude of weight losses. However the results are rather disappointing after several months or years of follow-up. For example it has been demonstrated that weight regain can be observed as soon as the patient is shifted to a refeeding or maintenance dietary program at the end of the VLCD period. Long-term results on glycemic control and body weight reduction are generally similar with standard low-calorie-diets and with VLCDs, the final results depending on the magnitude of weight loss whatever the prescribed diet. At short-term the VLCDs can be helpful first for initiating weight losses and second for sensitizing the patient to the potential benefits of complying to dietary measures.