Transsphenoidal surgical resection is the primary therapy for acromegaly caused by GH secreting pituitary adenomas. Medical therapy for patients not controlled by surgery includes primarily somatostatin analogs and secondarily dopamine agonists, both of which inhibit pituitary growth hormone secretion. A novel GH receptor antagonist (pegvisomant) binds to hepatic GH receptors and inhibits peripheral insulin-like growth factor-1 generation. Six patients resistant to maximal doses of octreotide therapy received pegvisomant - three received placebo or pegvisomant 30 mg or 80 mg weekly for 6 weeks and three received placebo and pegvisomant 10-20 mg/d for 12 weeks. Thereafter, all patients received daily pegvisomant injections of doses determined by titrating IGF-1 levels. Serum total IGF-1 levels were normalized in all six acromegalic patients previously shown to be resistant to somatostatin analogs via a novel mechanism of peripheral GH receptor antagonism. The GH receptor antagonist is a useful treatment for patients harboring GH-secreting tumors who are resistant to octreotide.