Capsid protein diversity among Norwalk-like viruses

Virus Genes. 2000;20(3):227-36. doi: 10.1023/a:1008140611929.


We have determined the complete capsid gene sequence of 20 Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs) collected predominantly from outbreaks in the UK between 1989 and 1996. These comprised nine genogroup I and eleven genogroup II strains. Phylogenetic analysis of these and 15 published sequences suggest seven genomic sub-groups within genogroup I, including three previously described. In genogroup II, eight sub-groups were apparent, of which four were novel. Amino acid identities between strains of distinct genogroups ranged from 37 to 44% while varying between 61 and 100% for strains within a genogroup. Separate phylogenetic analyses of the N-terminus and central variable region of the capsid showed good correlation. Sequence divergence between strains was greatest within the central variable region, with amino acid sequence identities as low as 28% within a genogroup. These 15 genomic sub-groups provide a framework for further investigations of genetic and antigenic relationships within this calicivirus clade.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Caliciviridae / classification
  • Caliciviridae / genetics*
  • Caliciviridae / isolation & purification
  • Capsid / genetics*
  • DNA, Viral / analysis
  • Genes, Viral / genetics*
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phylogeny
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid


  • DNA, Viral