To investigate the precise role of antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells in tumor immunity, we developed a novel adoptive tumor-immunotherapy model using OVA-specific Th1 and Th2 cells and an OVA gene-transfected tumor. This therapeutic model demonstrated that both antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells had strong antitumor activity in vivo with distinct mechanisms. However, immunological memory suitable for the generation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes was induced only when tumor-bearing mice received Th1 cell therapy, but not Th2 cell therapy. Thus it was strongly suggested that Th1-dominant immunity is critically important for the induction of antitumor cellular immunity in vivo. We also proposed that several immunomodulating protocols using interleukin (IL)-12, IL-12 gene, the natural killer T cell ligand alpha-galactosylceramide, or Th1 cytokine-conditioned dendritic cells might be useful strategies for the induction of Th1-dominant immunity essential for the development of tumor-specific immunotherapy.