Over the past few years, regions of genomic imprinting have been identified on a small number of chromosomes through a search for the etiology of various disorders. Distinct phenotypes have been associated with both maternal and paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14. This observation indicates that there are imprinted genes present on chromosome 14, although none have been identified to date. In order to focus the search for imprinted genes on chromosome 14, we analyzed cases of maternal and paternal UPD 14 and compared them with cases of chromosome 14 deletions. Cases of paternal UPD were compared with maternal deletions and maternal UPD compared with paternal deletions. The paternal UPD anomalies seen in maternal deletion cases allowed us to associate the following features and chromosomal regions: Hirsute forehead: del(14)(q12q13. 3) and del(14)(q32); blepharophimosis: del(14)(q32); small thorax: del(14)(q11.2q13); and joint contractures: del(14)(q11.2q13) and del(14)(q31). Comparison of maternal UPD and paternal deletion cases revealed fleshy nasal tip to be most often associated with del(14)(q32), scoliosis with del(14) (q23q24.2), and del(14)(q32. 11qter) and small size at birth to be associated with del(14)(q11q13) and del(14)(q32). Our study, in conjunction with a prior study of UPD 14 and partial trisomy 14 cases, and what is known of imprinting in regions of mouse chromosomes homologous to human chromosome 14, leads us to conclude that 14q23-q32 is likely an area where imprinted genes may reside.
Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.