Serum levels of lipids, lipoprotein(a) Lp(a) and other apolipoproteins were determined in 47 predialysis patients, 40 hemodialysis (HD) patients, 39 chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, 11 patients after kidney transplantation and 47 healthy subjects as reference group. The predialysis, HD, and CAPD patients had disturbances in the concentration of serum triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), total apoCIII, apoCIII present in the particles without apoB (apoCIII non B), and Lp(a) and HDL-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol/apoAI, apoAI/apoB, and apoAI/apoCIII ratios. Predialysis patients had significantly lower concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and total apoE levels than CAPD patients and total apoE level than HD patients. Moreover, both HD and CAPD patients had significantly increased levels of apoB containing apoE (apoB:E) and apoB containing apoCIII (apoB:CIII). The concentrations of serum TG, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apoB, Lp(a) in CAPD patients were statistically higher than in HD patients. The patients after transplantation demonstrated normalization of lipid and lipoprotein parameters and lipoprotein ratios except serum levels of TG, total apoCIII, apoCIII non B and the apoAI/apoCIII ratio. We concluded that abnormal lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in patients with uremia may be the cause of their high risk of atherosclerosis, but posttransplant patients exhibited improved levels of serum lipids, Lp(a) and other lipoprotein parameters and lipoprotein composition, which could be an index of decreased atherogenic status.