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Review
, 106 (4), 473-81

Obesity and Insulin Resistance

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Review

Obesity and Insulin Resistance

B B Kahn et al. J Clin Invest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Pleiotropic effects of insulin to promote adipose storage. Insulin stimulates differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. In adipocytes, insulin promotes lipogenesis by stimulating the uptake of glucose and lipoprotein-derived fatty acids and by inducing ADD-1/SREBP-1c, which regulates genes promoting fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis, not only in adipocytes but also in hepatocytes. Insulin may also regulate transcription through Forkhead transcription factors. Insulin diminishes triglyceride breakdown by inhibiting lipolysis. Many of these metabolic pathways are regulated by the PI3K signaling pathway.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Evolving view of the biological functions of the adipocyte. Previously, adipocytes were considered to be inert storage depots releasing fuel as fatty acids and glycerol in time of fasting or starvation. More recently it has become clear that adipocytes are endocrine glands that secrete important hormones, cytokines, vasoactive substances, and other peptides. ANS, autonomic nervous system.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Leptin exerts multiple actions to regulate glucose homeostasis through autocrine, paracrine, endocrine, and neural circuits. Whereas many of leptin’s effects are mediated by the CNS, some effects may be exerted directly at the level of insulin target tissues or pancreatic islet cells.

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