Transplantation of cultured neuronal cells is safe in animal models and improves motor and cognitive deficits in rats with stroke. The authors studied the safety and feasibility of human neuronal cellular transplantation in patients with basal ganglia stroke and fixed motor deficits, including 12 patients (aged 44 to 75 years) with an infarct 6 months to 6 years previously (stable for at least 2 months). Serial evaluations (12 to 18 months) showed no adverse cell-related serologic or imaging-defined effects. The total European Stroke Scale score improved in six patients (3 to 10 points), with a mean improvement 2.9 points in all patients (p = 0. 046). Six of 11 PET scans at 6 months showed improved fluorodeoxyglucose uptake at the implant site. Neuronal transplantation is feasible in patients with motor infarction.