Several studies have demonstrated elevated expression of translation factor mRNAs in malignant tissues. In this study, using primary human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, we examined gene expression of translation factors, including 2 eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs-4A1, -4E), 4 elongation factors (eEFs-1 alpha, -1 gamma, -1 delta, and -2) and 10 ribosomal proteins (Rps P1, P2, S10, L35, L5, L39, L9, L6, S3a and S17), whose mRNA expression has never been examined in HCC. Our results demonstrated that all the mRNAs examined were up-regulated in HCC tissues. Among 7 HCC tissues of different histological grades, the expression of these mRNAs remained at basal levels in a well to moderately differentiated (W/M-) HCC, was coordinately up-regulated in moderately differentiated (M-) HCCs. In moderately to poorly differentiated (M/P-) HCCs, the expression of eEFs-1 gamma, -1 delta, -2, Rps P0 and L9 mRNAs was further up-regulated along with the histological grading. These results therefore suggest that coordination and specific activation of translation factor genes might be involved in the process of liver carcinogenesis.