The purpose of this study was to compare directly the physiological consequences of 5% hypohydration or euhydration during exercise in both temperate (23 degrees C) and hot (33 degrees C) environments. The subjects were eight male volunteers. Each performed four 1-h exercise bouts at 60% maximum oxygen uptake, one in each of the following conditions: hot-hypohydrated, hot-euhydrated, temperate-hypohydrated, and temperate-euhydrated. Heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (Tre), forearm blood flow, and oxygen uptake were measured after 20, 40, and 60 min exercise. Whole-body sweat rate was also determined for each exercise bout. Hypohydration increased Tre significantly (P<0.05) more in the hot environment (0.16 degrees C per 1% decrease in body mass) than in the temperate environment (0.08 degrees C per 1% hypohydration). Furthermore, compared with euhydration, hypohydration decreased forearm blood flow and whole-body sweat rate significantly more during exercise in the hot than in the temperate environment. The reductions in forearm blood flow and whole-body sweat rate appear to have decreased heat loss, thus accounting for the increase in Tre during exercise in the heat while hypohydrated. In conclusion, this study illustrates that the physiological consequences of hypohydration during exercise are exacerbated in the heat.