Dietary fiber (DF) intakes in Western countries only accounts for about one-third of the substrates required for colonic bacterial cell turnover. There is a general trend among nutritionists to extend the DF concept to include all food constituents reaching the colon. In this line, a method to quantify the major nondigestible components in plant foods, namely, the indigestible fraction (IF), is presented. Analytical conditions for IF determination are close to physiological. Samples, analyzed as eaten, were successively incubated with pepsin and alpha-amylase; after centrifugation and dialysis, insoluble and soluble IFs were obtained. IF values include DF, resistant starch, resistant protein, and other associated compounds. IF contents determined in common foods (cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruits) were higher than DF contents. Calculated IF intakes were close to the estimated amount of substrates reaching the colon. IF data could be more useful than DF data from a nutritional point of view; therefore, IF is proposed as an alternative to DF for food labeling and food composition tables.