This study investigated the effect of creatine supplementation in conjunction with protein and/or carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on plasma creatine and serum insulin concentrations and whole body creatine retention. Twelve men consumed 4 x 5 g of creatine on four occasions in combination with 1) 5 g of CHO, 2) 50 g of protein and 47 g of CHO, 3) 96 g of CHO, or 4) 50 g of CHO. The increase in serum insulin was no different when the protein-CHO and high-CHO treatments were compared, but both were greater than the response recorded for the low-CHO treatment (both P < 0.05). As a consequence, body creatine retention was augmented by approximately 25% for protein-CHO and high-CHO treatments compared with placebo treatment. The areas under creatine- and insulin-time curves were related during the first oral challenge (r = -0.920, P < 0.05) but not after the fourth (r = -0.342). It is concluded, first, that the ingestion of creatine in conjunction with approximately 50 g of protein and CHO is as effective at potentiating insulin release and creatine retention as ingesting creatine in combination with almost 100 g of CHO. Second, the stimulatory effect of insulin on creatine disposal was diminished within the initial 24 h of supplementation.