Protein- and carbohydrate-induced augmentation of whole body creatine retention in humans

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000 Sep;89(3):1165-71. doi: 10.1152/jappl.2000.89.3.1165.


This study investigated the effect of creatine supplementation in conjunction with protein and/or carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion on plasma creatine and serum insulin concentrations and whole body creatine retention. Twelve men consumed 4 x 5 g of creatine on four occasions in combination with 1) 5 g of CHO, 2) 50 g of protein and 47 g of CHO, 3) 96 g of CHO, or 4) 50 g of CHO. The increase in serum insulin was no different when the protein-CHO and high-CHO treatments were compared, but both were greater than the response recorded for the low-CHO treatment (both P < 0.05). As a consequence, body creatine retention was augmented by approximately 25% for protein-CHO and high-CHO treatments compared with placebo treatment. The areas under creatine- and insulin-time curves were related during the first oral challenge (r = -0.920, P < 0.05) but not after the fourth (r = -0.342). It is concluded, first, that the ingestion of creatine in conjunction with approximately 50 g of protein and CHO is as effective at potentiating insulin release and creatine retention as ingesting creatine in combination with almost 100 g of CHO. Second, the stimulatory effect of insulin on creatine disposal was diminished within the initial 24 h of supplementation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Creatine / blood
  • Creatine / metabolism*
  • Creatine / urine
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Insulin
  • Creatine