Biophysical and molecular properties of annexin-formed channels

Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2000;73(2-4):91-134. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6107(00)00003-1.


The annexins are water soluble proteins possessing a hydrophilic surface, which belong to a family of proteins which (a) bind ('annex') both calcium and phospholipids, and (b) form voltage-dependent calcium channels within planar lipid bilayers. Annexins types are diverse (94 annexins in 45 species) and they belong to an enormous multigene family that ranges throughout all eukaryotic kingdoms. Although the structure of these proteins is now well known their functional and physiological roles remain largely unknown and circumstantial. Various experimental approaches provided evidence that annexins function as Ca(2+) channels that could act as regulators of membrane fusion. The identity of annexins is derived from the conserved 34 kDa C-terminal domain which comprises four repeats - except for annexin VI, with eight repeats - of a sequence of approximately seventy amino acids, which holds the area known as the 'endonexin fold', with its identifying GXGTDE. Annexins have been placed into three subgroups of (1) tetrad core and short amino terminal, (2) tetrad core and long amino terminal, and (3) octad core and short amino terminal. The repeats are highly conserved, each forming a compact alpha-helical domain comprising five alpha-helices wound in a right-handed superhelix. Four domains are formed, arranged in a nearly flat and cyclical array, with domains I and IV, and II and III respectively forming two tightly organised modules with almost twofold symmetry. A hydrophilic pore lies at the centre of the molecule, forming a prominent ion channel coated with charged and highly conserved residues. The annexin molecule is slightly curved, with both a convex and a concave face. The cation/anion permeability ratios and the selectivity sequence of the ion channels formed by several annexins confirm the selectivity of the annexins for Ca(2+) over other divalent cations, and reveals the importance of structural sites, e.g. amino acid positions 17, 78, 95 and 112 for the identification of the ion channel's position, function and regulation. Some are sensitive to low doses of the phenothiazine drugs, trifluoperazine (an anti-schizophrenia drug) and promethazine (anti nausea drug) La(3+) and Cd(2+), (blockers of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels) nifedipine (an inhibitor of non-activating Ca(2+) channels). There are two main competing models used to explain in vitro ion channel activity of annexins: one involves changes in the conductance of ion via electrostatic disturbance of the membrane surface; the other involves a much more extensive alteration in protein structure and a correspondingly deeper penetration into the membrane.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Annexins / chemistry*
  • Annexins / genetics
  • Annexins / metabolism*
  • Annexins / physiology
  • Calcium Channels / chemistry
  • Calcium Channels / metabolism
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Electrophysiology
  • Humans
  • Plant Proteins / chemistry


  • Annexins
  • Calcium Channels
  • Plant Proteins