Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of the morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes in the US. A 2- to 3-fold incidence of CVD occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic individuals over that in age- and gender-matched non-diabetic persons. Recent encouraging data demonstrating a decline in CVD mortality in the general US population do not reflect such a decline in the diabetic population, particularly in women. Increased risk for CVD is related to duration of diabetes and hyperglycemia, as well as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, gender, coagulation abnormalities, and other factors. Health care providers need to advocate for an uncompromising, multi-component attack on all modifiable risk factors for CVD, including glucose control, in the person with diabetes mellitus. This review focuses on known modifiable risk factors for CVD associated with diabetes, potential targets for primary and secondary prevention.