Cell-cell contact between marrow stromal cells and myeloma cells via VCAM-1 and alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin enhances production of osteoclast-stimulating activity

Blood. 2000 Sep 1;96(5):1953-60.


Myeloma is a unique hematologic malignancy that exclusively homes in the bone marrow and induces massive osteoclastic bone destruction presumably by producing cytokines that promote the differentiation of the hematopoietic progenitors to osteoclasts (osteoclastogenesis). It is recognized that neighboring bone marrow stromal cells influence the expression of the malignant phenotype in myeloma cells. This study examined the role of the interactions between myeloma cells and neighboring stromal cells in the production of osteoclastogenic factors to elucidate the mechanism underlying extensive osteoclastic bone destruction. A murine myeloma cell line 5TGM1, which causes severe osteolysis, expresses alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin and tightly adheres to the mouse marrow stromal cell line ST2, which expresses the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a ligand for alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with primary bone marrow cells generated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with ST2 showed increased production of bone-resorbing activity and neutralizing antibodies against VCAM-1 or alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin inhibited this. The 5TGM1 cells contacting recombinant VCAM-1 produced increased osteoclastogenic and bone-resorbing activity. The activity was not blocked by the neutralizing antibody to known osteoclastogenic cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. These data suggest that myeloma cells are responsible for producing osteoclastogenic activity and that establishment of direct contact with marrow stromal cells via alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin/VCAM-1 increases the production of this activity by myeloma cells. They also suggest that the presence of stromal cells may provide a microenvironment that allows exclusive colonization of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. (Blood. 2000;96:1953-1960)

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acid Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology
  • Antigens, CD / metabolism
  • Bone Marrow Cells / cytology
  • Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism*
  • Bone Resorption / physiopathology
  • CHO Cells
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cell Communication*
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Cricetinae
  • Culture Media, Conditioned / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Gene Expression
  • Humans
  • Integrin alpha4
  • Integrin alpha4beta1
  • Integrins / genetics
  • Integrins / immunology
  • Integrins / metabolism*
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Multiple Myeloma / metabolism
  • Multiple Myeloma / pathology
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Osteoclasts / cytology
  • Osteoclasts / drug effects
  • Osteoclasts / physiology*
  • Protein Binding
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing / genetics
  • Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing / immunology
  • Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Solubility
  • Stromal Cells / cytology
  • Stromal Cells / metabolism*
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / genetics
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / immunology
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, CD
  • Culture Media, Conditioned
  • Integrin alpha4beta1
  • Integrins
  • Isoenzymes
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Integrin alpha4
  • Acid Phosphatase
  • Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase