Advances in surgical procedures and new immunosuppressor therapies have improved the outcome of renal grafts. However, these changes have been accompanied by infectious, neoplastic and neurologic complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of neurologic complications among 542 patients receiving a renal transplant (from living or cadaveric donors) at CEMIC between 1970 and 1996. Neurologic complications occurred in 43 patients (8%) as follows: 8 meningitis (1.5%), 8 acute confusional syndrome (1.5%), 7 encephalitis (1.3%), 7 cerebrovascular accidents (1.3%), 6 convulsions (1.1%), 3 tumors (0.5%), 3 femoral nerve lesion (0.5%), and 1 epidural lipomatosis (0.1%). Etiologic agents most commonly observed in meningitis were: Cryptococcus neoformans, Listeria monocytogenes and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Major difficulties arose in the diagnosis of encephalitis. Diagnosis of the above complications required clinical astuteness and repeated bacteriologic, serologic and imaging studies.