Toll-like receptors in the induction of the innate immune response

Nature. 2000 Aug 17;406(6797):782-7. doi: 10.1038/35021228.


The innate immune response is the first line of defence against infectious disease. The principal challenge for the host is to detect the pathogen and mount a rapid defensive response. A group of proteins that comprise the Toll or Toll-like family of receptors perform this role in vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. This reflects a remarkable conservation of function and it is therefore not surprising that studies of the mechanism by which they act has revealed new and important insights into host defence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / immunology
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Humans
  • Immunity / physiology*
  • Immunity, Innate / physiology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology*
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Toll-Like Receptors


  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Toll-Like Receptors